Dana Do’s: The Defining Features of Verbal Behavior, Explained

There are two very important defining features of verbal behavior: point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity. This concerns only four of the six elementary verbal operants: 1) textual, 2) transcription, 3) echoic, and 4) intraverbal. Point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity do not concern the mand and the tact. Why? Because it has to do with the controlling stimulus. The mand is controlled by an MO and the tact is controlled by a non-verbal SD. Point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity are relevant to the verbal operants that are controlled by a verbal SD. Textual, transcription, echoic, and intraverbal are all controlled by verbal SDs.

When it comes to formal similarity, think about the form of the behavior, sense mode, spoken, written, signed, and so on. When a verbal behavior is the exact same form as the stimulus that controls it, we have formal similarity. We always have formal similarity with the echoic behavior which is a spoken response that is controlled, or evoked, by an identical spoken response. The antecedent is spoken and the verbal behavior is spoken. Intraverbal behavior may or may not have formal similarity. For example, if I ask a question vocally and you answer me vocally, then your verbal behavior has formal similarity with the antecedent that controls it. But, what if the question is spoken and the response is written? If a written intraverbal behavior is in response to a vocal antecedent, then there is no formal similarity. The antecedent and the behavior have to be in the same sense mode, either both spoken, written, signed, and so on. Textual and transcription will never have formal similarity.

Point-to-point correspondence only presents in echoic, textual, and transcription behavior. That means the content of the antecedent is exactly the same as the content of the verbal response. For example, in echoic behavior, the antecedent may be “Hey, what’s up?”. Well, the echoic response must also be “Hey, what’s up?”. “Hey, what’s up?” has point-to-point correspondence with “Hey, what’s up?”. Intraverbal should never have point-to-point correspondence. A defining feature of the intraverbal behavior is that there is no point-to-point correspondence with the controlling stimulus. If the antecedent is “Hey, what’s up?”, the intraverbal response has to be something like, “Not much. What’s new with you?”.

The takeaway:

  • Formal similarity: the antecedent and the behavior are the same sense mode, spoken, written, signed, etc.
  • Point-to-point correspondence: the antecedent and the verbal behavior are the exact same content, not necessarily the same sense mode, but exactly the same content from the starting point to the end point. Hence, point-to-point.
  • B-14   Define and provide examples of the verbal operants.
  • Formal Similarity
  • Intraverbal
  • Mini Mocks B
  • MiniBig A & B
  • Point-to-point Correspondence
  • Section B
  • Section B-14
  • Textual
  • Transcription
  • Related Content

  • Dana Do's: Get to the 'Root' of Response vs. Stimulus Generalization
    Branching out, PTB co-founder Dana Meller shares the latest from her "tree" of knowledge to help discriminate between response and stimulus generalization (puns intended).
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Verbal OperantsTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Select the Correct Elementary Verbal Operant
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller reviews verbal behavior, and explains which of the six elementary verbal operants is controlled by a written verbal Sᴰ, and also shares point-to-point correspondence. Included is a comparison of the different Sᴰ(s) that control(s) each elementary verbal operant. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants.
  • BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Who Wants to Learn More About Elementary Verbal Operants?Breaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Who Wants to Learn More About Elementary Verbal Operants?
    Let's break down a BCBA® exam mocj question about verbal behavior, focusing on one of the elementary verbal operants - the intraverbal. PTB co-founder Dana Meller clarifies the differences between the intraverbal and other verbal operants, providing a comprehensive understanding of each category. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants.
  • PTB co-founder Dana Meller clarifies the concepts, providing examples to help better understand these crucial distinctions and addresses common misconceptions between point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants.Test your Verbal Behavior Terminology ➠ Point-to-Point Correspondence vs. Formal Similarity
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller clarifies the concepts, providing examples to help better understand these crucial distinctions and addresses common misconceptions between point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Master Your Understanding of Autoclitic Verbal BehaviorTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Master Your Understanding of Autoclitic Verbal Behavior
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the complexities of autoclitics and their role in effective communication. Enhance your understanding of this secondary verbal operant as Dana presents real-life examples of autoclitics and their significance, particularly for individuals with social disabilities. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants.
  • ABA Terminology: Verbal OperantTest Your ABA Terminology ➠ Identify the Verbal Operant Explained in This Scenario
    Test your ABA Terminology. What is the verbal operant described in this scenario? Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants
  • Autoclitic
    A secondary verbal operant that modifies one’s own verbal behavior to attain a response from the listener and increases the chances that the listener will respond as intended by the…
  • Autoclitic mand
    A secondary verbal operant that modifies one’s own primary verbal behavior and is controlled by an MO in that it commands the listener to take some sort of action.
  • Autoclitic tact
    A secondary verbal operant that modifies one’s own primary verbal behavior and is controlled by some nonverbal aspect of the main response.
  • Tact
    An elementary verbal operant in which a speaker names non-verbal SDs they have direct contact with through any of their sense modes and private experiences that has a history of…
  • Textual
    An elementary verbal operant in which a speaker reads words that are presented in writing (i.e., text) that has a history of generalized conditioned reinforcement.
  • Transcription
    An elementary verbal operant in which a speaker converts spoken or written words into identical written words that has a history of generalized conditioned reinforcement.
  • Listener discrimination
    A non-verbal response evoked by listening to a speaker’s verbal SD and doing what is instructed due to a history of generalized conditioned reinforcement.
  • Codic
    Any verbal behavior that does not share formal similarity with its controlling stimulus but does share point-to-point correspondence (e.g., transcription).
  • Duplic
    Any verbal behavior that shares formal similarity and point-to-point correspondence with its controlling stimulus (e.g., echoic).
  • Formal similarity
    A concept in verbal behavior wherein the controlling stimulus (verbal SD) and the verbal behavior have the same topographical sense mode/form.
  • Echoic
    An elementary verbal operant in which the speaker vocally repeats the vocal verbal behavior of another speaker that has a history of generalized conditioned reinforcement.
  • Mand
    An elementary verbal operant in which the speaker’s verbal behavior is controlled by motivating operations and has a history of specific reinforcement.
  • Private events
    In verbal behavior, these are the private stimuli and covert responses that take place inside the skin, only accessible to the individual experiencing the event.
  • Intraverbal
    An elementary verbal operant in which a speaker differentially responds to the verbal behavior of others that has a history of generalized conditioned reinforcement.
  • Verbal behavior
    An application of applied behavior analysis that approaches learning language in a way that connects vocal and non-vocal language with its function.
  • Point-to-point correspondence
    A concept in verbal behavior wherein the beginning, middle, and end of the controlling stimulus (verbal SD) content match the beginning, middle, and end of the verbal behavior content.
  • Verbal Operants: Understanding the Roles of Speaker and Listener in a ConversationVerbal Operants: Understanding the Roles of Speaker and Listener in a Conversation
    Test your verbal behavior knowledge with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews verbal operants, the roles of the speaker and listener. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-14: Define and provide examples of the verbal operants
  • There are two very important defining features of verbal behavior: point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity. Dana Meller breaks down the four of six elementary verbal operants involved.Dana Do's: The Defining Features of Verbal Behavior, Explained
    There are two very important defining features of verbal behavior: point-to-point correspondence and formal similarity. Dana Meller breaks down the four of six elementary verbal operants involved.
  • Let's break down a BCBA® mock exam question about imitation training.Let's Break Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Let's Get Physical with Imitation Training & Formal Similarity
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller reviews a BCBA® mock exam question that targets the essential aspects of imitation training, breaking down the four defining features of successful imitation and how these elements contribute to effective learning and skill acquisition. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section G-5: Use modeling and imitation training.
  • Transitivity vs. Stimulus EquivalenceDana Do's: The Differences Between Stimulus Equivalence and Transitivity, Explained
    Transitivity is connected to stimulus equivalence, yes, but there’s more to it than that. Let PTB co-founder Dana Meller explain the key differences between these two concepts.
  • Chained and tandem schedules are both compound schedules. They require correct responding that must also occur in a specific order for reinforcement to be delivered. But that may not be as easy as it sounds. PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains. Refer to the 5th Edition Task List Section B-5 Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.Dana Do's: Chained Versus Tandem Schedules Explained
    Chained and tandem schedules are both compound schedules. They require correct responding that must also occur in a specific order for reinforcement to be delivered. But that may not be as easy as it sounds.
  • What is the difference between these two natural human behavior phenomena, rooted in consequences? Dana Meller breaks it down.Dana Do's: Confused by Matching Law and Behavioral Contrast?
    What is the difference between these two natural human behavior phenomena, rooted in consequences? Dana Meller breaks it down.
  • How are MOs the same, but different? PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains.Dana Do's: Compare and Contrast MOs and SDs
    MOs and SDs do share some similarities, but there are some key differences to note. PTB co-founder Dana Meller breaks it all down to help you discriminate between MOs, SDs, and how they work together. Refer to 5th Edition Task List Sections B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control, and B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • Dana Do's: What's the Difference Between Formal and Feature Stimulus Class?
    The difference between formal and feature stimulus class is something that has caused many students a great deal of confusion. That is because they seem the same, unless you look closely and realize they are not. PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains. Refer to 5th Edition Task List Section B-2: Define and provide examples of stimulus and stimulus class.
  • Dana Do's: How to Determine Value vs. Behavior Altering Effect
    A motivating operation is not a thing that you hold in your hand. It is the state or condition of being deprived of something or satiated with something. PTB co-founder Dana Meller dives into the in-the-moment effects to help explain the difference.
  • ABA terms you need to know: Surrogate CMO-S.Surrogate MO (CMO-S)
    A type of conditioned motivating operation that is established when a previously neutral stimulus acquires its evocative and value-altering effect by having been paired with an unconditioned motivating operation.
  • ABA terms you need to know-- contingency-shaped behavior.Contingency-shaped behavior
    When a behavior is learned and directly controlled by the consequences that follow it.
  • Dana Do's: Skinner's Radical Idea About Private Events and Behaviorism
    Skinner had a radical idea about private events and behaviorism. But it’s not as “out there” as you might think. Not making the connection? PTB co-founder Dana Meller breaks down how– and why– private events are consistent with behaviorism.
  • Dana Do's: How to Discriminate Between Response Blocking and Extinction
    What are the key differences between these these two procedures? PTB co-founder Dana Meller distills the concepts with common and relatable examples we can identify with. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-9: Define and provide examples of operant extinction; and B-6: Define and provide examples of positive and negative punishment contingencies.
  • 10 Positive Effects From Prioritizing Self-Care
    Self-care. It’s a bit of a broad term, and a total buzzword these days. It’s often used in the context of bubble baths and “unplugging.” But, at its core, self-care is about more than just “me-time.” It’s about taking care of yourself in a way that works best for you and your lifestyle.
  • How do you know if your BCBA® study activities are effective?Dana Do's: How to Know if Your Study Activities are Effective
    How do you know if your BCBA® study activities are effective? PTB co-founder Dana Meller shares some key analysis that may help BCBA® exam candidates assess efficacy.
  • Caution Using BCBA Exam as a MockDana Do's: Careful About Getting Creative With Mock Exams
    PTB co-founder cautions candidates about using the actual BCBA® exam as a mock exam, listing all the reasons why you might want to reconsider getting creative with your mock exam prep experience.
  • Dana Do's. Warning. Watch out for extremes.Dana Do's: Warning. Be Careful of Extremes.
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller sends an important warning for test takers. Watch out for extremes in exam questions and answer options.
  • Dana Do's: Are mock exams an accurate predictor of test performance?Dana Do's: How to Use Mock Exams in Your Study Plan
    I was recently asked if mock exams are useful in predicting how someone will do on the actual big exam. And, is repeating the same mock exam an effective study…
  • Dana Do's: The Scientific Goals of Behavior AnalysisDana Do's: The Scientific Goals of Behavior Analysis
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller takes on the first portion of the Task List with a quick lesson about section A-1. The secret sauce for understanding the goal of behavior analysis? It all comes down to description, prediction, and control.
  • Dana Do's: GeneralizationDana Do's: Relating, Framing and Equating
    Relating, framing and equating. PTB co-founder Dana Meller drills into the generalizability of relational frame theory, equivalence-based instruction, and stimulus equivalence. Would you believe they all go together? Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-15: Define and provide examples of derived stimulus relations; G-21: Use procedures to promote stimulus and response generalization; G-12: Use equivalence-based instruction.
  • Dana Do's: How to Discriminate Between MOs and SDsDana Do's: How to Discriminate Between SDs & MOs
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller breaks down the distinction between motivating operations (MOs) and discriminative stimulus (SDs). Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control; and B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Motivating OperationTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Motivating Operation Example Explained
    Test your concepts & principles knowledge with #PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a question about identifying the specific motivating operation described in the scenario. Included is a breakdown of the two components, or effects, that operate underneath the MO umbrella. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • The Pioneer of Methodological BehaviorismThe Pioneer of Methodological Behaviorism
    What are the historical origins of Methodological Behaviorism? Learn about observable behavior and John Broadus Watson's controversial "Little Albert Experiment." Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-4: Distinguish among behaviorism, the experimental analysis of behavior, applied behavior analysis, and professional practice guided by the science of behavior analysis.
  • BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Not All Conditioned Reinforcers Are Created EqualBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Not All Conditioned Reinforcers Are Created Equal
    Let's understand the concept and versatility of Generalized Conditioned Reinforcers (GCSRs) and their crucial role in behavior management. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-8: Define and provide examples of unconditioned, conditioned, and generalized reinforcers and punishers and G-3: Establish and use conditioned reinforcers.
  • Understanding Operant and Respondent ConditioningDana's Do's: Conditioning Us to Understand Operant and Respondent Conditioning?
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains how one word can describe two different things. Here's how to practically understand the difference between operant and respondent conditioning. BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • MiniBig
     

    PTB MiniBig: Fast, Flexible, and Focused Exam Prep

    The PTB MiniBig enables BCBA® exam prep candidates to tailor their study needs by popping in on single sessions of the intensive PTB Big Exam Prep Workshop. Each 3.5-hour session, focused on specific sections of the Task List, includes a mock exam followed by real-time, live, interactive feedback and access to live session replays, without committing to the full workshop.
  • Dana's Do's: WWSD (What Would Skinner Do?) on Tax DayDana's Do's: WWSD (What Would #Skinner Do?) on Tax Day?
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller illustrates a perfect example of rule-governed behavior centered on our shared and dreaded annual Tax Day obligation. BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-13: Define and provide examples of rule-governed and contingency-shaped behavior.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Operant Conditioning that Automatically OccursTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Operant Conditioning that Automatically Occurs
    Let's clarify the concept of automaticity of reinforcement and punishment, and its distinction from automatic reinforcement. With a relatable example, PTB co-founder Dana explains how an individual's behavior can be influenced without consciously knowing the reasons behind their actions. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Influencing Behavior Without Direct Pairing ExplainedInfluencing Behavior Without Direct Pairing, Explained
    Learn about an interesting phenomenon related to verbal cues motivating individuals without tangible reinforcement. PTB co-founder Dana Meller also shares an example of research conducted with little kids. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-13: Define and provide examples of rule-governed and contingency-shaped behavior; and G-6: Use instructions and rules.
  • Put Your #ABA Knowledge to the Test: Identifying the Attitude of SciencePut Your ABA Knowledge to the Test ➠ Identifying the Attitude of Science
    Test your ABA terminology knowledge. PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses one of the six attitudes of science that focuses on data-based decision-making, explaining how this attitude emphasizes our reliance on facts and objective quantification. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-2: Explain the philosophical assumptions underlying the science of behavior analysis (e.g., selectionism, determinism, empiricism, parsimony, pragmatism).
  • An easy way to break down the 7 dimensions of ABADana Do's: How to Easily Break Down the 7 Dimensions of ABA
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller shares an easy way to break down the 7 dimensions of ABA by using the dimensions to define what it means to be a behavior analyst, which in turn, makes it much easier to discriminate between each dimension. BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-5: Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).
  • Breaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: The Best Example of a Behavior.Breaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: The Best Example of a Behavior
    Test your Concepts and Principles knowledge. PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews BCBA® mock exam question about identifying the best example of a behavior. Included is a detailed breakdown of various options that could be helpful when approaching this type of question on the big ABA exam. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-1: Define and provide examples of behavior, response, and response class.
  • BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Identifying Punishers & Understanding their Impact on BehaviorBreaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Identifying Punishers & Understanding their Impact on Behavior
    Test your knowledge of behavior principles with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she breaks down a BCBA® mock exam question about the concept of punishers, clarifying their true definition based on their effect on behavior. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-6: Define and provide examples of positive and negative punishment contingencies; and G-16: Use positive and negative punishment (e.g., time-out, response cost, overcorrection).
  • Differential Reinforcement Procedure for Problem Behavior ReductionDifferential Reinforcement Procedure for Problem Behavior Reduction
    Test your ABA terminology with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she discusses the behavior change procedure, Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates (DRL). Dana explains how DRL specifically targets lower rates of responding and shares valuable insights on effectively implementing this technique in behavior management strategies. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement; and G-14: Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR).
  • ABA Terminology: Dimensions of ABATest your ABA Terminology ➠ Identify the Correct Dimension of ABA
    Test your understanding of philosophical underpinnings with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews the dimension of ABA, exhibited when a behavior analyst utilizes assessment methods to identify the function of challenging behavior. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-5: Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).
  • ABA Terminology: Compound Schedules of ReinforcementTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Compound Schedules of Reinforcement
    Test your knowledge of Concepts and Principles with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews one of the compound schedules of reinforcement without Sᴰs. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.
  • Understanding Mentalism TerminologyUnderstanding Mentalism Terminology
    Test your understanding of philosophical underpinnings with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she discusses the term mentalism and its association with explanations and practices in traditional psychology. Dana breaks down the three terms upon which mentalism is reliant: Hypothetical Construct, Explanatory Fiction, and Circular Reasoning. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-5: Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Riley, 1968).
  • Using Stimulus Salience to Increase Studying EffectivenessDana Do's: Using Stimulus Salience to Increase Studying Effectiveness
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the ways in which you can increase your studying effectiveness through stimulus salience. We know that ABA works, and Dana reminds students to utilize basic ABA principles to help themselves prepare for the BCBA® exam. Refer to Task List section B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control.
  • ABA Terminology: Stimuli Paired in Respondent ConditioningABA Terminology ➠ Stimuli Paired in Respondent Conditioning
    Test your ABA terminology. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Breaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Identify the Compound Schedule of ReinforcementBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Identify the Compound Schedule of Reinforcement
    Test your concepts and principles skills with PTB co-founder Dana Meller, as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about the compound schedule of reinforcement in the context of voting. Here, Dana details the key features of the mixed, concurrent, conjunctive, and tandem schedules of reinforcement, as well as provides corresponding examples. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.
  • Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Parameters for Using PunishmentBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Parameters for Using Punishment
    Test your knowledge of concepts & principles with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about the parameters to consider when using punishment. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-6: Define and provide examples of positive and negative punishment contingencies, G-16: Use positive and negative punishment (e.g., time-out, response cost, overcorrection).
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Matching Law vs. Behavioral ContrastTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Matching Law vs. Behavioral Contrast
    Put your ABA terminology knowledge to the test with #PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she compares two commonly confused terms: Matching Law vs. Behavioral Contrast, and discusses corresponding examples of each. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement, and H-5: Plan for possible unwanted effects when using reinforcement, extinction, and punishment procedures.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Temporal Contiguity Explained in DetailTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Temporal Contiguity Explained in Detail
    Test your knowledge of concepts and principles with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she discusses the term temporal contiguity, its association with operant and respondent conditioning. Here, Dana breaks down the different relationship factors that contiguity shares with operant and respondent conditioning. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Explore the Reinforcement Procedure Most Similar to Precision TeachingExplore the Reinforcement Procedure Most Similar to Precision Teaching
    Test your understanding of behavior-change procedures and ABA educational methodologies with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews the specific differential reinforcement procedure most closely connected to Precision Teaching. Here, Dana provides a concise overview of the individualized instructional method, its focus on fluency-building, and some key aspects of the methodology. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement; G-9: Use discrete-trial, free-operant, and naturalistic teaching arrangements, and G-14: Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR).
  • Breaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Replication Using the Dimensions of ABABreaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Replication Using the Dimensions of ABA
    Test your Philosophical Underpinnings knowledge with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about identifying the specific dimension of ABA that ensures behavior analytic work can be replicated. Included is a description of behavioral, conceptually systematic, effective, and technological. As an added bonus, Dana shares a clever exercise that helps have better clarity on the purpose of each dimensions. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-5: Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Name the Conditioned Motivating Operation (CMO) in This ScenarioTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Name the Conditioned Motivating Operation (CMO) in This Scenario
    Test your knowledge of ABA concepts and principles as PTB co-founder Dana Meller reviews a memorable question about the specific conditioned motivating operation (CMO) described in the scenario, as well as provides additional examples. Included are a description of the CMO pairing process and the resulting behavior and value-altering effects acquired through the pairing process. As a BONUS, Dana shares a tip that will help you on the Big Exam with questions related to CMO. BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • Breaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Negative Reinforcement ContingenciesBreaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Negative Reinforcement Contingencies
    Test your Concepts and Principles skills with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about negative reinforcement. Included is a description of CMOS, free operant avoidance, and discriminated avoidance, as well as corresponding detailed examples. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: DRL vs. DRDTest your ABA Terminology ➠ DRL vs. DRD
    Test your knowledge of differential reinforcement procedures as PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the similarities and key differences between DRL and DRD procedures. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement and G-14: Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR).
  • Mock BCBA® Exam Question Breakdown: Identify the Best Example of Response GeneralizationBreak Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question: Identify the Best Example of Response Generalization
    Test your concepts and principles skills with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about response generalization. Dana highlights the differences between response generalization vs. stimulus generalization and shares a good rule of thumb for evaluating a response generalization scenario. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-11: Define and provide examples of discrimination, generalization, and maintenance.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: MO vs. SDTest your ABA Terminology ➠ MO vs Sᵈ
    Test your understanding of antecedents and behavior change with PTB co-founder Dana Meller. Here she explains the distinction between Sᵈs and MOs, explores their evocative function, and discusses how they can alter our behavioral repertoire when combined. Through relatable examples, Dana illustrates the importance of understanding the interplay between Sᵈs and MOs in behavior change. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control and B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • Break Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Use the Dimensions of ABA to Identify, "What Makes Us Behavioral?"Break Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Use the Dimensions of ABA to Identify, "What Makes Us Behavioral?"
    Test your Philosophical Underpinnings knowledge with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question that breaks down the dimensions of ABA, identifying the specific dimension that describes the defining features of a behavior analyst. Included is a description of each of the answer options, determinism, empiricism, applied, and behavioral. Refer to the BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section A-5: Describe and define the dimensions of applied behavior analysis (Baer, Wolf, & Risley, 1968).
  • Programming for Generalization: Expanding Skills Beyond the Learning EnvironmentProgramming for Generalization: Expanding Skills Beyond the Learning Environment
    There are seven ways to program for generalization. PTB co-founder Dana Meller dives into "Indiscriminable Contingencies". Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-11: Define and provide examples of discrimination, generalization, and maintenance; G-21: Use procedures to promote stimulus and response generalization.
  • Challenge Your Knowledge of Compound Schedules of ReinforcementChallenge Your Knowledge of Compound Schedules of Reinforcement
    Test your knowledge of concepts and principles with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she examines a question about one of the compound schedules of reinforcement that has the potential to challenge a client's frustration tolerance. Dana emphasizes the frustrating components of this specific schedule by providing the key features and corresponding applied setting examples. Also included are descriptions of the chained reinforcement schedule and the trial-by-error process. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Understanding Behavior-Altering EffectsTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Understanding Behavior-Altering Effects
    Test your terminology. PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains the umbrella term, "Motivating Operations" and breaks down the sub-categories. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • Level Up Your Understanding of Differential Reinforcement ProceduresLevel Up Your Understanding of Differential Reinforcement Procedures
    Test your knowledge of differential reinforcement with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she discusses the specific DR procedure to provide the client with reinforcement for exhibiting higher rates of the target behavior(s) that already exist in their repertoire. Additionally, Dana draws parallels to personal experiences and highlights skill areas for which clients could benefit from this SR schedule. BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement and G-14: Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR).
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Explore the 2 Types of Negative ReinforcementTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Explore the 2 Types of Negative Reinforcement
    Test your understanding of negative reinforcement with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she discusses the two specific types and details and nuances using relatable examples that significantly impact our everyday lives. BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies and G-1: Use positive and negative reinforcement procedures to strengthen behavior.
  • Hungry by Association: The Conditioned Motivating Operation Behind TV Ad CravingsHungry by Association: The Conditioned Motivating Operation Behind TV Ad Cravings
    Put your knowledge of motivating operations to the test. PTB co-founder Dana Meller dives into a specific type of CMO and explains how seemingly innocuous visuals on TV ads can trigger a state of deprivation for the advertised item, resembling the effects of an unconditioned motivating operation. Dana presents an intriguing example highlighting the process of pairing and the associations that can unexpectedly ignite intense cravings. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations and G-2 Use interventions based on motivating operations and discriminative stimuli.
  • BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Understanding Respondent-Operant InteractionsBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Understanding Respondent-Operant Interactions
    Test your behavior-change procedures skills with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question that explores respondent-operant interactions, comparing and contrasting habilitation, habituation and adaptation, with an emphasis on the importance of reinforcement. The breakdown touches on operant conditioning and its role in behavior change. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Test your ABA Terminology: Identify the Stimulus ClassTest your ABA Terminology ➠ Identify the Stimulus Class
    Test your knowledge of concepts and principles as PTB co-founder Dana Meller reviews a question about identifying a specific type of stimulus class, and the features associated with the three main stimulus class variations. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-2: Define and provide examples of stimulus and stimulus class.
  • BCBA® Mock Exam Question Breakdown: Understanding Respondent ConditioningBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Understanding Respondent Conditioning
    Test your concepts and principles skills with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about respondent conditioning, breaking down the process. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Test Your ABA Terminology: What Are The 3 Types of ExtinctionTest Your ABA Terminology ➠ What Are The 3 Types of Extinction?
    Test your knowledge of Concepts & Principles and Behavior-Change Procedures with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews the different types of operant extinction procedures. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-9: Define and provide examples of operant extinction, G-15: Use extinction.
  • BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Basic Schedules of Intermittent ReinforcementBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Basic Schedules of Intermittent Reinforcement
    Enhance your understanding of ABA concepts and principles with PTB co-founder Dana Meller's explanation of a BCBA® mock exam question based on basic schedules of intermittent reinforcement, including fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval, and variable ratio schedules. Explore the unique patterns of responding associated with each schedule, and learn more about the schedule that produces a postreinforcement pause. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.
  • Mastering the ABCs of BehaviorPTB's Special ABA Sauce: Mastering the ABCs of Behavior
    Test your understanding of the ABCs of Behavior with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she analyzes a tasty scenario to identify the MO, SD, prompt, behavior, and consequence using PTB's special ABC breakdown method. Discover how ordering extra sauce serves as a perfect example to unravel the intricate relationship between MOs, deprivation, SDs, and reinforcement. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-1: Define and provide examples of behavior, response, and response class, B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control, B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations and G-4: Use stimulus and response prompts and fading (e.g., errorless, most-to-least, least-to-most, prompt delay, stimulus fading).
  • Breaking Down a Mock BCBA® Exam Question About Compound Schedules of ReinforcementBreaking Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Compound Schedules of Reinforcement
    Test your Behavior-Change Procedures skills with PTB co-founder Dana Meller as she reviews a BCBA® mock exam question about the chained schedule, compound schedule of reinforcement. Included is a description of the alternative schedule, concurrent schedule, and conjunctive schedule. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.
  • Dana Do's: Discriminating Between Masking and Overshadowing
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller offers detailed examples to help students better discriminate between two often confusing concepts: masking vs. overshadowing.
  • Dana Do's: Confused About Automatic and Socially Mediated Reinforcement?
    It’s not wrong to associate sterotypic behaviors with automatic reinforcement— but there are other factors to consider. PTB co-founder Dana Meller offers a quick explainer to clear up the confusion. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-7: Define and provide examples of automatic and socially mediated contingencies.
  • The concepts of punishment and reinforcement can sometimes confuse exam candidates. PTB co-founder Dana Meller clears things up, explaining nuances between the two and sharing her tips for making better discriminations on exam day. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies and B-6: Define and provide examples of positive and negative punishment contingencies.Dana Do's: Let's Clear Up the Confusion Between Punishment and Reinforcement
    The concepts of punishment and reinforcement can sometimes confuse exam candidates. PTB co-founder Dana Meller clears things up, explaining nuances between the two and sharing her tips for making better discriminations on exam day.
  • ABA terms you need to know: contiguityMaster your ABA Terminology ➠ Exploring Contiguity & the Importance of Timing
    Let's take a quick dive into the concept of contiguity, in both respondent and operant conditioning. PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains its significance in understanding behavior change processes. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • The connection between environment & behavior.Breaking Down the Intricate Connection Between Environment & Behavior
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the term environment in connection with a term defined as a physical event that influences how individuals interact with the world around them Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-2: Define and provide examples of stimulus and stimulus class.
  • ABA Terminology Challenge ➠ Respondent-Operant Interactions
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the simultaneous occurrence of respondent and operant conditioning, clarifying the differences between the two and how they influence behavior. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Let's break down a BCBA® mock exam question: satiated vs satisfied.Let's Break Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Satiated and Satisfied— Understanding Motivating Operations
    Sharpen your ABA principles skills as PTB co-founder Dana Meller breaks down a BCBA® mock exam question about motivating operations (MOs) and their influence on behavior. Learn the process of identifying the correct answer while gaining a deeper understanding of MOs and their behavior-altering effects. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses two concepts that fall under negative reinforcement, breaks down their differences, and explains how they operate in various situations. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies; and G-1: Use positive and negative reinforcement procedures to strengthen behavior.Don't Get Caught in the Rain...Without Your Negative Reinforcement Umbrella
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses two concepts that fall under negative reinforcement, breaks down their differences, and explains how they operate in various situations. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies; and G-1: Use positive and negative reinforcement procedures to strengthen behavior.
  • Discover how environmental variable evokes problem-solving behaviors to gain access to the desired item. With real-life examples, PTB co-founder Dana Meller sheds light on the significance of this variable in manding programs and various situations. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.Supercharge Your Problem-Solving Skills to Identify the CMO in the Scenario
    Discover how environmental variable evokes problem-solving behaviors to gain access to the desired item. With real-life examples, PTB co-founder Dana Meller sheds light on the significance of this variable in manding programs and various situations. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • ABA terms you need to know: negative reinforcement vs. extinction.ABA Terminology Challenge ➠ Negative Punishment vs. Extinction
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller provides insight to better understand why these concepts can be confusing, despite both leading to a decrease in behavior. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-6: Define and provide examples of positive and negative punishment contingencies; and B-9: Define and provide examples of operant extinction.
  • Motivating Operations ➠ Exploring the Future Impact of Behavior
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses a powerful concept that explores the influence of consequences on behavior in the presence of an MO. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-12: Define and provide examples of motivating operations.
  • Let's break down a BCBA® mock exam question about stimulus controlLet's Break Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Stimulus Control & Game-Changing Learning Factors
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller breaks down a BCBA® mock exam question that distills the factors that affect stimulus control in behavior analysis. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control.
  • PTB co-founder Dana Meller delves into the differences and nuances between fixed-time (FT) and variable-time (VT) schedules, as well as fixed-interval (FI) and variable-interval (VI) schedules. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement; and G-14: Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR).The Ultimate Reinforcement Schedules Showdown ➠ FT/VT vs. FI/VI
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller delves into the differences and nuances between fixed-time (FT) and variable-time (VT) schedules, as well as fixed-interval (FI) and variable-interval (VI) schedules. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement; and G-14: Use reinforcement procedures to weaken behavior (e.g., DRA, FCT, DRO, DRL, NCR).
  • PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the concept of stimulus control, explaining the function of the Sᴰ.Coffee Quandary: Stimulus Control & Absence of Reinforcement in the Pursuit of Hydration
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller discusses the concept of stimulus control, explaining the function of the Sᴰ. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-10: Define and provide examples of stimulus control.
  • ABA terms you need to know.Test your ABA Terminology ➠ Operant vs. Respondent Extinction
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller explains the differences between operant and respondent extinction procedures and how these procedures reduce challenging behaviors and diminish reflex responses in behavior management and conditioning. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-3: Define and provide examples of respondent and operant conditioning.
  • Let's break down a BCBA® mock exam question.Let's Break Down a BCBA® Mock Exam Question: Hypothesize the Function of Disruptive Behavior in Circle Time
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller breaks down a BCBA® mock exam question, exploring various possibilities, automatic, unconditioned, negative, and positive reinforcement, to better understand the reasons behind the behavior in this scenario. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-4: Define and provide examples of positive and negative reinforcement contingencies.; and G-1: Use positive and negative reinforcement procedures to strengthen behavior.
  • ABA terms you need to know: ratio strain vs. breaking pointABA Terminology Challenge ➠ Ratio Strain vs. Breaking Point
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller clarifies the distinctions between ratio strain and breaking point. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Sections B-5: Define and provide examples of schedules of reinforcement.; and F-5: Conduct preference assessments.
  • PTB co-founder Dana Meller addresses the impact of biases and stereotypes based on common attributes like skin color, gender, race, religion, and nationality, emphasizing the need for positive change and fairness in our responses toward others. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-11: Define and provide examples of discrimination, generalization, and maintenance.An ABA Lens on Racial Inequality, Biases, and Stereotypes
    PTB co-founder Dana Meller addresses the impact of biases and stereotypes based on common attributes like skin color, gender, race, religion, and nationality, emphasizing the need for positive change and fairness in our responses toward others. Refer to BCBA® Task List (5th ed.) Section B-11: Define and provide examples of discrimination, generalization, and maintenance.
  • Shopping Cart
    Scroll to Top